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Additives > Flame retardants > e-book

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Fire retardants for polymers
All producers and details of commercial chemicals
ISBN: 9789078546269

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The author is Deny Kyriacos, President & CEO, GEM-Chem.
e-mail: dk@GEM-Chem.net, phone: +32-2-7710649

Dr.Kyriacos has worked at Upjohn (Polyurethanes), GE (Engineering thermoplastics) and
ICI (Polyurethanes) in international TS, Sales and Marketing.
He holds a B.Sc.(Distinction, Honours, University award in Chemistry) from Alexandria,
a M.Sc.course,(ICI scholarship award) in Polymer Technology and, a Ph.D. from
Loughborough in the UK.
Deny Kyriacos is the founder of DK Business Group and GEM-Chem.

Deny Kyriacos: LinkedIn profile

GEM-Chem compose and publish e-books and data bases
in Polymer Science, Engineering, Technology, and Marketing
GEM-Chem initiate, develop, market and direct, new projects on company
organisation, international marketing, engineering, technology and science




PUR, PIR & FIRE RETARDANCE

It is well known that rigid polyurethane foams catch fire easily and, eventually, burn completely.
The presence of aromatic polyester polyols or sucrose initiated polyether ones in the formulation may contribute to a reduction of flame propagation through the formation of a char layer on the burning foam but their effect is not appreciable especially when stringent fire extinguishing characteristics are to be met.
In addition, the smoke generated by the combustion of the aromatic urethane segments which constitute the main components of the foam, is another problem which has to be addressed.
All this is as old as PU rigid foam technology itself but, overcoming the flammability of bare polyurethane foams is still a topic under investigation.
It has been common practice to add in the polyol formulation an unreactive flame retardant such as TCEP or TCPP in order to achieve a B2 rating according to DIN 4102.
Even if DIN 4102/B2 is a mild test, the quantities of flame retarding halogenated phosphates which must be included in the formulation in order to pass it, are, appreciable. Such a technique renders the formulation expensive and, furthermore, some properties of the final product are adversely affected by the load of the additives.
Mixing issues arising, during processing, from the incompatibility of the various polyol components, can nowadays be solved by using multi-tank dispensing equipment.
The substitution of PU foams by polyisocyanurate (PIR) ones reduces fire propagation. However, a relatively small amount of a fire retardant, either reactive or not, often has to be present in the polyol formulation in order to produce PIR foams with a convincing B2 rating as well as a good physical properties.
Such a rating is no match to demanding european fire tests such as
DIN 4102/B1
Epiradiateur/M1
BS 476/7
(For an outline of all fire tests please refer to the e-book above)
Whereas BS476/7 is met by PIR foams comprising appreciable loads of conventional halogenated polyols and additives, the Epiradiateur/M1 as well as the DIN4102/B1 tests require the presence of even higher quantities of halogenated chemicals. In the near future, such chemicals will not be available because of the implementation of the REACH convention which prohibits their production, therefore viable alternatives must be developed if advantage is to be taken, cautiously and conscientiously, of the low thermal conductivity and low density of PIR foams.
Several polyol modifications, which include the use of nanomaterials are being investigated by chemists, engineers and technologists. Many other synthetic and commercially viable routes to synthesising flame retarding, non halogenated polyols can be thought of.

The author is Deny Kyriacos, President & CEO, GEM-Chem.
e-mail: dk@GEM-Chem.net, phone: +32-2-7710649

Dr.Kyriacos has worked at Upjohn (Polyurethanes), GE (Engineering thermoplastics) and
ICI (Polyurethanes) in international TS, Sales and Marketing.
He holds a B.Sc.(Distinction, Honours, University award in Chemistry) from Alexandria,
a M.Sc.course,(ICI scholarship award) in Polymer Technology and, a Ph.D. from
Loughborough in the UK.
Deny Kyriacos is the founder of DK Business Group and GEM-Chem.

Deny Kyriacos: LinkedIn profile

GEM-Chem compose and publish e-books and data bases
in Polymer Science, Engineering, Technology, and Marketing
GEM-Chem initiate, develop, market and direct, new projects on company
organisation, international marketing, engineering, technology and science

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